Rabu, 05 Januari 2011


Presented To Fulfil Reseach Education’s Assignment
1.1  Backround Of The Study
Musica universalis or musica mundana referred to the order of the universe, as God had created it in "measure, number and weight". The proportions of the spheres of the planets and stars (which at the time were still thought to revolve around the earth) were perceived as a form of music, without necessarily implying that any sound would be heard music refers strictly to the mathematical proportions. From this concept later resulted the romantic idea of a music of the spheres. Musica humana, designated the proportions of the human body. These were thought to reflect the proportions of the Heavens and as such, to be an expression of God's greatness. To Medieval thinking,
all things were connected with each other a mode of thought that finds its traces today in the occult sciences or esoteric thought ranging from astrology to believing certain minerals have certain beneficiary effects.
Musica instrumentalis, finally, was the lowliest of the three disciplines and referred to the manifestation of those same mathematical proportions in sound be it sung or played on instruments. The polyphonic organization of different melodies to sound at the same time was still a relatively new invention then, and it is understandable that the mathematical or physical relationships in frequency that give rise to the musical intervals as we hear them, should be foremost among the preoccupations of Medieval musicians.
Many kinds of songs are ones that are very familiar to teenagers. They represent teenager’s feeling and emotion. Moreover those who are falling in love with someone. Teenagers like enjoying nd singing them because their lyric can touch her feeling and heart especially when they remember their sweet heart.

1.2  Problem Of The Study
The problem of the study is “what are the sentence patterns used in some Avril lavigne’s songs according to the three diagram”.

1.3  Objective Of The Study
This study is going to describe the sentence patterns used in Avril lavigne’s songs.

1.4  Significance Of The Study
The main purpose of this study is supposed to be useful for all students and especially for students of  Islamic university of madura who are interested in studying syntax.

1.5  Limitation Of The Study
This study is only limited on the syntactical analysis of sentence patters used in Avril lavigne’s songs. these songs are taken as the objects of the study because these songs are very familiar to teenagers especially the teenagers who falling in love but also the songs are simple and easy to understand.
The discussion and the analysis of the study are based on three diagrams theory that is purposed by Diane D. Bornstein.

1.6  Definition Of The Key Terms
a.       Syntactic structure
Syntactic structure is the English simplest grammar containing a phrase structure and transformational part.
b.      A song
Song composer interprets a poem, translate it mood atmosphere, and imagery into music, also created vocal melody that is musically statisfying and perfectly molded to next. Important words are emphasized by stressed tones as melodic climaxs.
c.       Avril lavigne
Avril ramona lavigne is her complate name, she is a singer, actress and model that was formed in 2002.

            In this chapter the writer would like to review the related literature which can be support the discussion of the topic.

2.1  Syntax
Syntax is branch of  linguistic that studies the arrangement of the relationship among words, phrases, and clause forming sentences: sentences Structure (Webster, 1988: 1.359). It is a set of principle, or constitutive rules, or according to which words are combined into sentences in a language (Falk, 1973: 163). Bornstein (1969:246) also defines syntax as the process by which words are grammatical categories combined to form phrases, clauses and sentences in a language.
            From the definition above, the writer concludes that syntax is branch of linguistics which studies about the construction of phrases and sentences.

2.2  Sentences
Fank (1972:20) says that a sentences is a full prediction containing a subject and predicate with a finite verb. Kietley (1982:205) says that sentences is made up of words groups together to complete thought. The first word of sentences is capitalized to indicate the beginning of thought. A period, questtion mark or exclamation point ia placed after the last word to indicate the end of the thought.

2.3  Lyrics
Lyrics (in singular form Lyrics) are set f word that accompany music, either by speaking or singing. The words “lyric” derives from the greek word “lyrikos”. Meaning “singing to the lyric” the word lyric came to be to be used for the “words of a popular song”; this meaning was recorded in 1829. the common plural predominates contemporary usage. Use of the singular form “lyric” remains acceptable, yet is considered erroneous in referring to a singular song word as lyric. (lyrics.com).
Lyric that originally refers to lyric poetry is the poetry song to a lyre ( Reaske, 1966:35). Lyric and music are different. But, their combination can make a song. Thus, a song is a lyric set to music intended to be sung (Hornby, 1995:133)

In conducting this thesis, the writer applies the library research. The writer gained the data from some books, which have connection with the problem, which are presented in this thesis.
            Here, the writer will present the steep beginning from gaining the data up to analyzing the data themselves.
            Research design
The writer attempts to find and explain the construction of avril lavigne’s love songs. So it is called a descriptive, qualitative design for it explains the data qualitatively and descriptively.
            Source of data
The data are taken from the lyric of avril lavigne’s love songs that are valuable on the cassette.
1.      Open your heart
2.      I will be
3.      Don’t tell me
            Data collecting
After the data were obtained, the writer followed some steps in collecting the data:
1.      Reading the teks of all the songs in the album
2.      Selecting three songs of ten songs.

            Data analysis
Having collected the data, the writer analyzed the data as the follow steps:
1.      Writing down all the lyrics of three representative songs of avril lavigne’s love songs.
2.      Analyzing each lines of the lyrics that concerns with kernel and transformed sentences and describing them into surface structure by using phrase structure and tree diagram theory.
3.      Mentioning the formula of the sentence being analyzed them writing all the patterns that are found in the diagram.
4.      Concluding the result of analyzing the lyrics at the the end of each song in the form of phrase structure rules.

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